宇宙的形成1:卫星 Alien Moons

本节目将带我们一起探寻宇宙是如何诞生的,又是如何从一个小点扩张到现在的浩瀚无际。首先我们认识卫星,卫星是指在围绕一颗行星轨道并按闭合轨道做周期性运行的天然天体或人造天体,月球就是最明显的天然卫星的例子。在太阳系里,除水星和金星外,其他行星都有天然卫星。太阳系已知的天然卫星总数(包括构成行星环的较大的碎块)至少有160颗。天然卫星是指环绕行星运转的星球,而行星又环绕着恒星运转。天然卫星的大小不一,彼此差别很大。其中一些直径只有几千米大,还有几个在太空运行的卫星却比水星还大。
This Is The Greatest Story Ever Told, The Creation Of Everything Us. The Programme Investigates How The Universe Came Into Existence Out Of Nothing, And How It Grew From A Miniscule Point, Smaller Than An Atomic Particle, To The Vast Cosmos We See Today.

In the universe ,everything seems to orbit something, planets orbit stars and moons orbit planets. Some moons are volcanic, but the volcanos are ice; others are awash with great oceans. There may be more habitable moons in our galaxy, than there are habitable planets. Moons tell the unknown stories of our solar system and show us how it all works.

In our own solar system, there are just 8 planets. But orbiting 6 of those planets are moons, lots and lots of moons, more than 300 of them, each one is different, each one a world on its own. While we look at our own solar system, we see a lot of planets, but even more than planets, we see moons. And in many ways, they are more interesting than the planets they go around. We have moons that are airless and apparently dead like ours, but others in our solar system, we have moons with oceans inside them and moon with atmosphere surround them. And I’m for moon and you can keep the planets.

The biggest eruptions, the coldest temperatures and the largest oceans in the solar system,they are all on moons. There are moons with ice volcanos. There are moons with lakes of methane, and metane rainfall, smog, clouds. Moons that are so volcanically active that they keep remaking their surface. Moons with all kinds of plume shooting off into the space. Really, a much wider range of environments than we ever could have imagined.

The Big Bang(1-2)

宇宙大爆炸是由宇宙中红移现象而推论得出的,宇宙在加速膨胀是有事实依据的,因此得出宇宙是由大爆炸中产生的结论,这些数据会激发人们无数的遐想,不可否认,人类已经开始了探索宇宙的新的旅程,这个过程肯定是刺激的。或许有一天人们发现红移现象是由另外原因产生的,那么大爆炸说就瞬间瓦解了。

Billions and billions of galaxies, the universe is so vast. We can’t even imagine what those numbers mean. But 14 billion years ago, none of these existed until the Big Bang.

-The Big Bang is the origin of space and the origin of time itself.

We take a journey through space and time, from the beginning to the end of the universe itself.

This is our world – cities, forests, oceans, people. Everything in the universe is made from matter created in the first seconds of the Big Bang. Every star, every planet, every atom, every glade of grass, every drop of water.

-Water is ancient. The hydrogen atoms in here were born moments after the Big Bang, then came everything else.

The Big Bang is the defining event of our universe and everything in it. The secrets of our past, our present and our future are locked inside this one moment in time. To unlock the secrets of the Big Bang, we have to travel outside of our own solar system, and journey beyond even our own galaxy. As we travel into deep space, we are actually seeing into the past and getting closer to being able to witness the dawn of time itself, passing the first infant galaxies and the first stars.

We arrive back at the moments the universe began, and face the biggest questions in all of science.

-This is the Holy Grail of Physics. We want to know why it banged. We want to know what banged. We want to know what was there before the bang.

To get the answers, we’ve built machines the size of cities to simulate conditions when the universe was created, and space telescopes to peer deep into our past.

-We’re getting close to answering the age old questions – why are we here, where did we come from, does the universe, in fact, has a beginning or an end, and the soul, what are they like. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason. We would know the mind of God.

The origin of the Big Bang is the greatest mystery of all time. And the more we learn, the deeper the mystery becomes.

-We like to think that our universe is unique. However, now we are not so sure. Perhaps, there is a multi-verse of universes. Another possibility is that our Big Bang is just one of many Big Bangs. But it may be one of just an infinite number/ of universes and there may be other regions and that infinite number of universes where Big Bang is just happening today.

But there is only one universe we are sure of, and understanding this one is hard enough. Since the late 1920s, everything we know about how our universe works has been turned upside down.

-It’s important to realize how much our picture of the universe is changing in the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the conventional wisdom in science was that the universe was static and eternal.

In 1929, that all changed. At the Mount Wilson Observatory above L.A., astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered galaxies aren’t stuck…

Yellowstone 1 and 2 黄石公园(1-2)

黄石国家公园,(Yellowstone National Park)简称黄石公园,是世界第一座国家公园,成立于1872年。黄石公园位于美国中西部怀俄明州的西北角,并向西北方向延伸到爱达荷州和蒙大拿州,面积达7988平方公里。这片地区原本是印地安人的圣地,但因美国探险家路易斯与克拉克的发掘,而成为世界上最早的国家公园。园内设有历史古迹博物馆,它在1978年被列为世界自然遗产。黄石河、黄石湖纵贯其中,有峡谷、瀑布、温泉以及间歇喷泉等,景色秀丽,引人入胜。其中尤以每小时喷水一次的“老实泉”最著名。园内森林茂密,还牧养了一些残存的野生动物如美洲野牛等,供人观赏。百度百科对黄石公园的详细介绍

As continents shift and clash,volcanos erupt,and glaciers grow and recede,the earth’s crust is carved in countless fasinating ways,leaving a trail of geological mysteries behind.

One of the greatest is right here, in yellow stone national park in Wyoming. This is one of the world’s most geologically active places, shaken by up to 5000 earthquakes every year, and more geysers and hot springs than the rest of the world combine. Why is yellow stone so active? How did it form? And why here,in the heart of Rockies. Scientists studying in yellowstone are uncovering a violent past. Carved by water,crushed by ancient glaciers,and blasted by the biggest volcano eruption ever known on the planet. And even today,yellow stone is one of the most dangerous places on earth.

Yellowstone national park is one of the most amazing places on earth, and it’s unique. It contains some of the America’s most stunning scenery and wildlife that attracts 3 million tourists a year. To understand where yellowstone came from, and why it is so active today, we need to take a journey back into the distant past of the north American continent and deep into the earth’s interior. Yellowstone sits 8000 feet up, on a romote mountain plateau, primirally within Wyoming, but streching into parts of Idaho and Montana. The park covers 3468 sqaure miles,63 miles north to south and 54 miles east to west. And its on top of one of the world’s most unuasual and deadliest geological structures.

-What’s unusual about the park? Are the wildlife unusual? No. Is the wide open space unusual? No, you’ve got it all over the western U.S. What’s unusual? It’s the very unusual geology that created the park. Yellowstone was founded as the world’s first national park because of the geology.

It’s the strange geology that attracts teams of scientists to the park. Their task, to piece together the story of the incredible processes that built this unique, extraordinary landscape, by digging deep into Yellowstone’s past.

-The geological history of Yellowstone goes back to the formation of the North American Continent. Some of the rocks in Yellowstone are 2.8 to 3.2 billion-year-old rocks, some are the oldest in North America.

Only by travelling back into the past can we figure out why in this particular location, there are 2,400 miles of rivers, more than 300 waterfalls, and the world’s greatest concentration of 10,000 hot water springs, bubbling mud holes, gas vents(排气孔) and gysers(间歇喷泉). What do these features reveal about this landscape and how it was formed?

The investigation begins at Yellowstone’s star attraction—Old Faithful. It’s a key clue to what’s going on underneath the surface. Located in the southwest of Yellowstone Park, the gyser puts on an explosive display every 90 munites or so, lasting out thousands of gallons of scorching hot water.

-Yellowstone is like no other place on earth. There is so much heat coming out here. It’s really a singular phenomenon.

-Well, after about 90-munite nap, Old faithful has woke back to life. And it wasn’s actual napping, it was recharging, the temperature of the water was increasing, the system was pressurizing. Beneath Old faithful, there is a rather complex pumping system filled with carburet and conduit and constrictions.

Rain waters saturating the ground around the gysers, slowly fill its underground reservoir.

New Words and Phrases

continent n. 大陆,洲
clash n. 冲突,撞击声,抵触 vt. 冲突,抵触,使 … 发出撞击声 vi. 引起冲突
volcano n.火山
erupt v. 爆发
glacier n. 冰河,冰川
recede vi. 后退,减弱 vt. 撤回
carve v. 雕刻,切割
geological adj. 地质学的
Wyoming n. 怀俄明(州)[美国]
geyser n. 天然热喷泉,间歇泉 n. <英>热水器
Rockies n. 落基山脉(北美) = Rocky Mountains
blast n. 一阵(强风),爆炸声,爆破 v. 爆破,摧毁
plateau n. 高原;平稳;稳定状态 vi. 到达平稳阶段
Idaho n. 爱达荷(美国州名)
Montana n. 蒙大拿(美国州名)